Conference paper

Effect of impurity on Cu electromigration

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The impact of the existence of Cu grain boundaries on the degradation of Cu interconnect lifetime at the 45 nm technology node and beyond has suggested that improved electromigra-tion in Cu grain boundaries has become increasingly important. In this paper, solute effects of non-metallic (C, Cl, O and S) and metallic (Al, Co, In, Mg, Sn, and Ti) impurities on Cu elec-tromigration were investigated. The Cu alloy interconnects were fabricated by adjusting Cu electroplating solutions or by depositing a Cu alloy seed, a thin film layer of impurity, an alloy liner, or a metal cap. A large variation of Cu grain structure in the samples was achieved by adjusting the wafer fabrication process steps. The non-metallic impurities were found to be less than 0.1% in the electroplated Cu with no effect on Cu electromigration lifetimes. Most of the metallic impurities reduced Cu interface and grain boundary mass flows and enhanced Cu lifetime, but Al, Co, and Mg impurities did not mitigate Cu grain boundary diffusion. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.