Electromigration and resistivity of Cu, Co and Ru on-chip interconnection have been investigated. A similar resistivity size effect increase was observed in Cu, Co, and Ru. The effect of liners and cap, e.g. Ta, Co, Ru and SiCxNyHz, on Cu/interface resistivity was not found to be significant. Multilevel Cu, Co or Ru back-end-of-line interconnects were fabricated using 10 nm node technology wafer processing steps. EM in 22 nm to 88 nm wide Co lines, 24 nm wide Cu with and without a thin Co cap and 24 nm wide Ru lines were tested. These data showed that Cu with a Co cap, Co and Ru had highly reliable EM, although Ru was better than Co and Co was better Cu. The electromigration activation energies for Cu with Co cap and Co were found to be 1.5-1.6 eV and 2.1-2.7 eV, respectively.