Conference paper

C4NP for Pb-free solder wafer bumping and 3D fine-pitch applications

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Controlled Collapse Chip Connection - New Process (C4NP) technology is a novel solder bumping technology developed by IBM to address the limitations of existing bumping technologies. Through continuous improvements in processes, materials and defect control, C4NP technology has been successfully implemented at IBM in the manufacturing of all 300mm Pb-free solder bumped wafers. Both 200 μm and 150 μm pitch products have been qualified and are currently ramping up volume production. Extendibility of C4NP to 50 μm ultra-fine pitch microbump application has been successfully demonstrated with the existing C4NP manufacturing tools. Targeted applications for microbumps are three-dimensional (3D) chip integration and the conversion of memory wafers from wirebonding (WB) to C4 bumping. The metrology data on solder volume, bump height, defect and yield have been characterized by RVSI inspection. This paper reviews the C4NP processes from mold manufacturing, solder fill and solder transfer onto 300 mm wafers, along with defect and yield analysis. Reliability challenges as well as solutions in the development and qualification of flip chip Pb-free solder joint are also reviewed. In addition to a suitable under bump metallurgy (UBM), a robust lead-free solder alloy with precisely controlled composition and special alloy doping is needed to enhance performance and reliability. © 2008 IEEE.