All-Copper Flip Chip Interconnects by Pressureless and Low Temperature Nanoparticle Sintering
Flip chip interconnects purely made out of Cu, so-called all-Cu interconnects, have the potential to overcome the present current capacity limit of state-of-The-Art solder based interconnects, while meeting the demand for ever decreasing interconnect pitches. Parasitic effects in solder based interconnects, caused by interdiffusion of various metals, are mitigated in all-Cu interconnects. In this work, all-Cu interconnects were formed by the use of low temperature and pressureless sintering of Cu nanoparticles. Thereby, a Cu paste material was applied between the Cu pillars of a silicon chip and the Cu pads on a silicon substrate by a dip transfer method. The electrical and mechanical properties of sintered Cu were characterized on films of the same Cu pastes. The porous films resulted in 4.4 times higher electrical resistivity and one order of magnitude reduced mechanical stiffness and tensile strength compared to bulk Cu. All-Cu interconnects with a diameter of 30 μm and a pitch of 100 μm were formed with an optimized Cu particle distribution and sintering procedure. Resistances down to 1.7 ± 0.5 mO were measured for these all-Cu interconnects which is comparable to solder based benchmark interconnects. However, the porosity of the sintered Cu interconnect results in lower shear strength compared to the solder benchmark.