Three-Dimensional Dynamic Random Access Memories Using Through-Silicon-Vias

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This paper describes orthogonal scaling of dynamic-random-access-memories (DRAMs) using through-silicon-vias (TSVs). We review 3D DRAMs including DDR3, wide I/O mobile DRAM (WIDE I/O), and more recently, the hybrid-memory cube (HMC) and high-bandwidth memory (HBM) targeted for high-performance computing systems. We then cover embedded 3D DRAM for high-performance cache memories, reviewing an early cache prototype employing face-to-face 3D stacking which confirmed negligible performance and retention degradation using 32 nm server and ASIC embedded DRAM macros. A second cache system prototype based on POWER7 was developed to confirm feasibility of stacking $\mu {\rm P}$ and high density cache memory, with $> 2~{\rm GHz}$ operation. For test and assembly, a micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) probe-card with an integrated active silicon chip, realized a 50 $\mu{\rm m}$ pitch micro-probing at-speed-active-test for known-good-die (KGD) sorting. Finally, oxide wafer bonding with Cu TSV demonstrated wafer-scale 3D integration, with TSV diameters as small as 1 $\mu{\rm m}$. The paper concludes with comments on the challenges for future 3D DRAMs.