Conference paper

Image-Based Soil Organic Carbon Remote Sensing from Satellite Images with Fourier Neural Operator and Structural Similarity

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Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is the transfer and storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide in soils, which plays an important role in climate change mitigation. SOC concentration can be improved by proper land use, thus it is beneficial if SOC can be estimated at a regional or global scale. As multispectral satellite data can provide SOC-related information such as vegetation and soil properties at a global scale, estimation of SOC through satellite data has been explored as an alternative to manual soil sampling. Although existing studies show promising results, they are mainly based on pixel-based approaches with traditional machine learning methods, and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are uncommon. To study the use of CNNs on SOC remote sensing, here we propose the FNO-DenseNet based on the Fourier neural operator (FNO). By combining the advantages of the FNO and DenseNet, the FNO-DenseNet outperformed the FNO in our experiments with hundreds of times fewer parameters. The FNO-DenseNet also outperformed a pixel-based random forest by 18% in the mean absolute percentage error.