Future on-chip interconnect metallization and electromigration
Electromigration and resistivity of Cu, Co and Ru on-chip interconnections have been investigated. Non-linered Co and Ru interconnects can have better interconnect resistance than Cu, if the Cu liner cannot be scaled down below 2 nm in future interconnect technologies. A similar resistivity size effect increase was observed in Cu, Co, and Ru. Multi-level Cu, Co or Ru back-end-of-line interconnects were fabricated using 7 and 10 nm node technology wafer processing steps. EM in 18 nm to 88 nm wide Co lines, 18-24 nm wide Cu with a thin Co cap and 18 to 24 nm wide Ru lines were tested. The electromigration activation energies for Cu with Co cap, Co and Ru were found to be 1.5-1.7 eV, 2.4-3.1 eV and 1.9 eV, respectively. These data showed that Cu with Co cap, Co and Ru interconnects all had highly reliable electromigration.