VLSI Technology and Circuits 2022
Conference paper

Advanced BEOL Materials, Processes, and Integration to Reduce Line Resistance of Damascene Cu, Co, and Subtractive Ru Interconnects

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Recent progress in materials, processes and integration schemes to reduce line resistance (Line-R) of damascene Cu and alternative conductors (damascene Co and subtractive Ru) are reviewed, including (1) graphene/Co capped Cu to achieve both EM reliability and Line-R reduction (2) nanosecond laser anneal of Ru blanket films for subtractive-etched interconnects, (3) single damascene Cu, which is potentially one way to extend Cu to extreme nodes, and (4) Co/Cu composite integration to preserve Cu power rails. Finally, the technology shift from Cu to alternative conductors is discussed from the viewpoint of Line-R crossover.