Thermal silicon probes have demonstrated their potential to investigate the thermal properties of various materials at high resolution. However, a thorough assessment of the achievable resolution is missing. Here, we present a probe-based thermal-imaging technique capable of providing sub-10 nm lateral resolution at a sub-10 ms pixel rate. We demonstrate the resolution by resolving microphase-separated PS-b-PMMA block copolymers that self-assemble in 11 to 19 nm half-period lamellar structures. We resolve an asymmetry in the heat flux signal at submolecular dimensions and assess the ratio of heat flux into both polymers in various geometries. These observations are quantitatively compared with coarse-grained molecular simulations of energy transport that reveal an enhancement of transport along the macromolecular backbone and a Kapitza resistance at the internal interfaces of the self-assembled structure. This comparison discloses a tip-sample contact radius of a ≈ 4 nm and identifies combinations of enhanced intramolecular transport and Kapitza resistance.