This paper describes the design and function of the English generation phase in JETS, a minimal transfer, Japanese-English machine translation system that is based on the linguistic framework of relational grammar. To facilitate the development of relational grammar generators, we have built a generator shell that provides a high-level relational grammar rule-writing language and is independent of both the natural language and the application. The implemented English generator (called GENIE) maps abstract canonical structures, representing the basic predicate-argument structures of sentences, into well-formed English sentences via a two-stage plan-and-execute design. The modularity inherent in the plan-and-execute design permits the development of a very general and stable deterministic execution grammar. Another major feature of the GENIE generator is that it is category-driven, i.e., planning rules and execution rules are distributed over a part-of-speech hierarchy (down to individual lexical items) and are invoked via an inheritance mechanism only if appropriate for the category being processed. Categorydriven processing facilitates the handling of exceptions. The use of a syntactic planner and category-driven processing together provide a great deal of flexibility without sacrificing determinism in the generation process. © 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.