Optimization of post Cu CMP cleaning performance can be accomplished through dilution ratio tuning and pad rinse of clean chemicals. Excessive chemical etching as well as megasonic power can induce high Cu roughness. Generation of hollow metal and Cu dendrite defects depends not only on the clean chemistry but also the queue time between plating and anneal and between CMP and cap. AFM and XPS provide insights into the cleaning mechanism. EM and TDDB tests are the ultimate tests for the effectiveness of post Cu CMP cleaning. © 2012 IEEE.