Conference paper

Overcoming Catastrophic Forgetting via Direction-Constrained Optimization

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This paper studies a new design of the optimization algorithm for training deep learning models with a fixed architecture of the classification network in a continual learning framework. The training data is non-stationary and the non-stationarity is imposed by a sequence of distinct tasks. We first analyze a deep model trained on only one learning task in isolation and identify a region in network parameter space, where the model performance is close to the recovered optimum. We provide empirical evidence that this region resembles a cone that expands along the convergence direction. We study the principal directions of the trajectory of the optimizer after convergence and show that traveling along a few top principal directions can quickly bring the parameters outside the cone but this is not the case for the remaining directions. We argue that catastrophic forgetting in a continual learning setting can be alleviated when the parameters are constrained to stay within the intersection of the plausible cones of individual tasks that were so far encountered during training. Enforcing this is equivalent to preventing the parameters from moving along the top principal directions of convergence corresponding to the past tasks. Based on this observation we present our direction-constrained optimization (DCO) method, where for each task we introduce a linear autoencoder to approximate its corresponding top forbidden principal directions. They are then incorporated into the loss function in the form of a regularization term for the purpose of learning the coming tasks without forgetting. Furthermore, in order to control the memory growth as the number of tasks increases, we propose a memory-efficient version of our algorithm called compressed DCO (DCO-COMP) that allocates a memory of fixed size for storing all autoencoders. We empirically demonstrate that our algorithm performs favorably compared to other state-of-art regularization-based continual learning methods.