Journal of Crystal Growth

Orientation dependent amphoteric behavior of group IV impurities in the molecular beam epitaxial and vapor phase epitaxial growth of GaAs

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The incorporation and amphoteric behavior of the Group IV impurities, Si, Ge, and C, have been investigated in molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) and AsCl3 vapor phase epitaxial (VPE) GaAs samples grown on (100), (211) and (311) substrates. Spectroscopic analysis using photothermal ionization spectroscopy and photoluminescence combined with variable temperature Hall effect measurements indicate that the amphoteric behavior of the Group IV impurities is kinetically influenced by different surface reaction processes associated with the substrate orientation. A description of the kinetic growth process has been developed which considers the bonding structure of the growth surface and the related surface reaction mechanisms of Group III, IV, and V sources in MBE and VPE growth. With these kinetically limited growth processes the experimentally observed impurity incorporation results can be explained based on the different reaction behavior associated with the surface bonding of the different adsorbed chemical species on the dynamic growth front. © 1989.