Power dissipation in microprocessors is projected to reach a level that may necessitate chip-level liquid cooling in the near future. An on-chip microchannel heat sink can reduce the total thermal interfaces between an integrated circuit chip and the convective cooling medium and therefore yield smaller junction-to-ambient thermal resistance. This paper reports the fabrication, assembly, and testing of a silicon chip with complementary metaloxidesemiconductor process compatible microchannel heat sink and thermofluidic chip input/output (I/O) interconnects fabricated using wafer-level batch processing. Ultra-small form factor, low-cost fabrication and assembly (system integration) are achieved for 2D and 3D chips, as the microchannel heat sink is fabricated directly on back-side of each chip. Through-wafer electrical and fluidic vias are used to interconnect the monolithically integrated microchannel heat sink to thermofluidic chip I/O interconnections. The feasibility of the novel fluidic I/O interconnect is demonstrated through preliminary thermal resistance measurements. © 2006 IEEE.