We have used a temperature sensitive polymer film as a removable template to position, and align, gold nanorods onto an underlying target substrate. Shape-matching guiding structures for the assembly of nanorods of size 80 nm × 25 nm have been written by thermal scanning probe lithography. The nanorods were assembled into the guiding structures, which determine both the position and the orientation of single nanorods, by means of capillary interactions. Following particle assembly, the polymer was removed cleanly by thermal decomposition and the nanorods are transferred to the underlying substrate. We have thus demonstrated both the placement and orientation of nanorods with an overall positioning accuracy of ≈10 nm onto an unstructured target substrate. © 2011 American Chemical Society.