Physical Review Applied

Detuning Axis Pulsed Spectroscopy of Valley-Orbital States in Si / Si - Ge Quantum Dots

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Silicon-quantum-dot qubits must contend with low-lying valley excited states that are sensitive functions of the quantum-well heterostructure and disorder; quantifying and maximizing the energies of these states are critical to improving device performance. We describe a spectroscopic method for probing excited states in isolated Si/Si-Ge double quantum dots using standard baseband pulsing techniques, easing the extraction of energy spectra in multiple-dot devices. We use this method to measure dozens of valley excited-state energies spanning multiple wafers, quantum dots, and orbital states, which are crucial for evaluating the dependence of valley splitting on quantum well width and other epitaxial conditions. Our results suggest that narrower wells can be beneficial for increasing valley splittings, but this effect can be confounded by variations in growth and fabrication conditions. These results underscore the importance of valley-splitting measurements for guiding the development of Si qubits.