X10 is a new object-oriented PGAS (Partitioned Global Address Space) programming language with support for distributed asynchronous dynamic parallelism that goes beyond past SPMD message-passing models such as MPI and SPMD PGAS models such as UPC and Co-Array Fortran. The concurrency constructs in X10 make it possible to express complex computation and communication structures with higher productivity than other distributed-memory programming models. However, this productivity often comes at the cost of high performance overhead when the language is used in its full generality. This paper introduces high-level compiler optimizations and transformations to reduce communication and synchronization overheads in distributed-memory implementations of X10 programs. Specifically, we focus on locality optimizations such as scalar replacement and task localization, combined with supporting transformations such as loop distribution, scalar expansion, loop tiling, and loop splitting. We have completed a prototype implementation of these high-level optimizations, and performed a performance evaluation that shows significant improvements in performance, scalability, communication volume and number of tasks. We evaluated the communication optimizations on three platforms: a 128-node Blue Gene/P cluster, a 32-node Nehalem cluster, and a 16-node Power7 cluster. On the Blue Gene/P cluster, we observed a maximum performance improvement of 31.46x relative to the unoptimized case (for the MolDyn benchmark). On the Nehalem cluster, we observed a maximum performance improvement of 3.01x (for the NQueens benchmark) and on the Power7 cluster, we observed a maximum performance improvement of 2.73x (for the MolDyn benchmark). In addition, there was no case in which the optimized code was slower than the unoptimized case. We also believe that the optimizations presented in this paper will be necessary for any high-productivity PGAS language based on modern object-oriented principles, that is designed for execution on future Extreme Scale systems that place a high premium on locality improvement for performance and energy efficiency. © 2011 IEEE.