Conference paper

Tungsten and cobalt metallization: A material study for MOL local interconnects

View publication


Middle-of-the-line (MOL) interconnect and contact resistances represent significant impacts to high-end IC performance at ≤ 10 nm nodes. CVD W-based metallization has been used for all nodes since the inception of damascene. However, it is now being severely challenged due to limited scaling of the traditional PVD Ti/CVD TiN barrier and ALD nucleation layers. This study reports the use of alternate barriers, along with metal-to-metal contact interface cleans, to reduce contact resistance for W-based MOL metallization. As well, we report the first use of Co metal for MOL contacts and local interconnects, with successful integration below a Cu BEOL dual damascene V0/M1 module. Metal line resistances are compared among the various options, and the challenges with each option are highlighted.