Communications of the ACM

The Clarion call for modern services: China, Japan, Europe, and the U.S.

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A rapid evolution toward an engineering approach to the life cycle of modern services and the application of mathematic and scientific approaches to the problems and opportunities in countries such as China, Japan, Europe, and the US in discussed. Complex service systems must be viewed at three levels which include the functional attributes, non-functional attributes, and intentional attributes. As computational services are proliferating, new fields of study are opening, combining the computing, engineering, mathematical, management, and social sciences in creative way. The emphasis on 'Promoting Modern Services Industry' services confirms China's determination to expand beyond its 'manufacturing center' position to a new economy with a services focus. Japan has been looking for new drivers to create the next state of economic growth, building off a strong product-driven base established in the 20th century.