J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS

Printability of buried extreme ultraviolet lithography photomask defects

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Native acting phase-programmed defects, otherwise known as buried program defects, with attributes very similar to native defects, were successfully fabricated using a high-accuracy overlay technique. The defect detectability and visibility were analyzed with conventional amplitude and phase-contrast blank inspection at 193-nm wavelength, pattern inspection at 193-nm wavelength, and scanning electron microscopy. The mask was also printed on wafer, and printability is discussed. Finally, the inspection sensitivity and wafer printability are compared, leading to the observation that the current blank- and pattern-inspection sensitivity is not enough to detect all of the printable defects.