Journal of Lightwave Technology

Plasmonic ferroelectric modulators

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Integrated ferroelectric plasmonic modulators featuring large bandwidths, broad optical operation range, resilience to high temperature and ultracompact footprint are introduced. Measurements show a modulation bandwidth of 70 GHz and a temperature stability up to 250 °C. Mach-Zehnder interferometer modulators with 10-μm-long phase shifters were operated at 116 Gbit/s PAM-4 and 72 Gbit/s NRZ. Wide and open eye diagrams with extinction ratios beyond 15 dB were found. The fast and robust devices are apt to an employment in industrial environments.