ASME Journal of Electronic Packaging

Lid-integral cold-plate topology: Integration, performance, and reliability

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We demonstrate the lid-integral silicon cold-plate topology as a way to bring liquid cooling closer to the heat source integrated circuit (IC). It allows us to eliminate one thermal interface material (TIM2), to establish and improve TIM1 during packaging, to use wafer-level processes, and to ease integration in first-level packaging. We describe the integration and analyze the reliability aspects of this package using modeling and test vehicles. To compare the impact of geometry, materials, and mechanical coupling on warpage, strains, and stresses, we simulate finite element models of five different topologies on an organic land-grid array (LGA) carrier. We measure the thermal performance in terms of thermal resistance from cold-plate base to inlet liquid and obtain 15 mm2 K/W at 30 kPa pressure drop across the package. We build two different topologies using silicon cold-plates and injection-molded lids. Gasket-attached cold-plates pass an 800 kPa pressure test, and direct-attached cold-plates fracture in the cold-plate. The results advise to use a compliant layer between cold-plate and manifold lid and promise a uniformly thick TIM1 layer in the Si-Si matched topology. The work shows the feasibility of composite lids with integrated silicon cold-plates in high heat flux applications.