Federated XGBoost on Sample-Wise Non-IID Data
Federated Learning (FL) is a paradigm for jointly training machine learning algorithms in a decentralized manner which allows for parties to communicate with an aggregator to create and train a model, without exposing the underlying raw data distribution of the local parties involved in the training process. Most research in FL has been focused on Neural Network-based approaches, however Tree-Based methods, such as XGBoost, have been underexplored in Federated Learning due to the challenges in overcoming the iterative and additive characteristics of the algorithm. Decision tree-based models, in particular XGBoost, can handle non-IID data, which is significant for algorithms used in Federated Learning frameworks since the underlying characteristics of the data are decentralized and have risks of being non-IID by nature. In this paper, we focus on investigating the effects of how Federated XGBoost is impacted by non-IID distributions by performing experiments on various sample size-based data skew scenarios and how these models perform under various non-IID scenarios. We conduct a set of extensive experiments across multiple different datasets and different data skew partitions. Our experimental results demonstrate that despite the various partition ratios, the performance of the models stayed consistent and performed close to or equally well against models that were trained in a centralized manner.