Evolution of patterning materials towards the Moore's Law 2.0 Era
In this paper, the utilization of lithographic materials for semiconductor patterning applications based on optical and EUV radiation sources is reviewed. Photoresist platforms including novolac, chemically amplified, chain scission, molecular and inorganic materials are discussed in relation to their chemistry, design, processing, and performance. If the focus of Moore's Law 1.0 was on laterally scaling the number of components on a single chip, Moore's Law 2.0 can be understood as the coming era of 3D scaling, where the improved performance from 2D shrinking is replaced by integrated AI, 3D packaging, 3D transistors and new types of memory, among other enablers. As the historical patterning challenges faced by the lithographic industry to scale down semiconductor devices over multiple technology nodes are reviewed from a materials perspective, insight is given regarding future patterning materials utilization and the importance of back-implementing leading-edge materials for Moore's Law 2.0 patterning applications.