The rotation of a bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) is driven by multiple stators tethered to the cell wall. Here, we extend a recently proposed power-stroke model to study the BFM dynamics under different biophysical conditions. Our model explains several key experimental observations and reveals their underlying mechanisms. 1), The observed independence of the speed at low load on the number of stators is explained by a force-dependent stepping mechanism that is independent of the strength of the stator tethering spring. Conversely, without force-dependent stepping, an unrealistically weak stator spring is required. 2), Our model with back-stepping naturally explains the observed absence of a barrier to backward rotation. Using the same set of parameters, it also explains BFM behaviors in the high-speed negative-torque regime. 3), From the measured temperature dependence of the maximum speed, our model shows that stator-stepping is a thermally activated process with an energy barrier. 4), The recently observed asymmetry in the torque-speed curve between counterclockwise-and clockwiserotating BFMs can be quantitatively explained by the asymmetry in the stator-rotor interaction potentials, i.e., a quasilinear form for the counterclockwise motor and a quadratic form for the clockwise motor. © 2011 by the Biophysical Society.