Clinical Use of Artificial Intelligence Requires AI-capable Organizations

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Artificial intelligence-based algorithms are being widely implemented in health care, even as evidence is emerging of bias in their design, problems with implementation, and potential harm to patients. To achieve the promise of using of AI-based tools to improve health, healthcare organizations will need to be AI-capable, with internal and external systems functioning in tandem to ensure the safe, ethical, and effective use of AI-based tools. Ideas are starting to emerge about the organizational routines, competencies, resources, and infrastructures that will be required for safe and effective deployment of AI in health care, but there has been little empirical research. Infrastructures that provide legal and regulatory guidance for managers, clinician competencies for the safe and effective use of AI-based tools, and learner-centric resources such as clear AI documentation and local health ecosystem impact reviews can help drive continuous improvement.