Caffeine Impact on Metabolic Syndrome Components Is Modulated by a CYP1A2 Variant
Cultural, dietary, and lifestyle factors are the main modulators of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) disease risk. Coffee is one of the most popular worldwide beverages, and recent epidemiological studies have showed that coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of T2DM. This study investigates the impact of coffee intake on T2DM risk and assesses the effect of CYP variants with caffeine exposures on T2DM. Data from 7,607 study subjects were analyzed by logistic regression models, among whom 3,290 GWAS data were available for CYP variants association studies using Plink analysis. These data suggest a protective relationship for women, but not for men; however, the results were not statistically significant in this dataset and there is a significant interaction in favor of women regarding heavy coffee consumption. The interaction between male gender and heavy coffee consumption becomes significant, thereby tending to cancel the protective effect of coffee for males. CYP rs2470890 allele 'C' increases the odds of T2DM by a factor of around 1.2 but decreases the odds of caffeine boosting T2DM of 1.7 by a factor of 0.77. rs2470890 showed an association with T2DM only when the interaction with coffee was considered, thereby setting an example of genetic activation by dietary changes associating with metabolic syndrome.