Inhalation Toxicology

Association of waterpipe smoking with myocardial infarction and determinants of metabolic syndrome among catheterized patients

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Background: Waterpipe smoking is a rising global public health epidemic perceived by many users to be less harmful, though its toxicity overlaps or even exceeds that of cigarette smoking. Short-term cardiovascular changes due to waterpipe smoking are well established, but longer-term health impacts are still not fully elucidated. Objective: We aim to investigate the association of waterpipe smoking with myocardial infarction among patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Methods: The study was performed on Lebanese patients referred for cardiac catheterization. Patient’s blood was collected for metabolic measures and questionnaires were filled out to include socio-demographic, behavioral and pertinent medical characteristics of the study subjects. Results: Myocardial infarction is significantly and independently associated with waterpipe smoking, with odds ratio (OR) of 1.329 (95% CI: [1.04–1.68]; p =.021), which is lower than that for cigarette smoking (OR = 1.87, 95% CI: [1.63–2.15]; p <.001). Only diabetes showed significant association with waterpipe smoking among MI enrollees (OR = 1.66, 95%CI: [1.04–2.63]; p =.032). Conclusion: The study provides yet another evidence for the adverse cardiovascular effects of waterpipe smoking on a clinical level. The harmful effects of waterpipe smoking should be underscored by health care professionals.