Ar+-implanted Si-waveguide photodiodes for mid-infrared detection

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Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible Ar+-implanted Si-waveguide p-i-n photodetectors operating in the mid-infrared (2.2 to 2.3 μm wavelengths) are demonstrated at room temperature. Responsivities exceeding 21 mA/W are measured at a 5 V reverse bias with an estimated internal quantum efficiency of 3.1%-3.7%. The dark current is found to vary from a few nanoamps down to less than 11 pA after post-implantation annealing at 350 °C. Linearity is demonstrated over four orders of magnitude, confirming a single-photon absorption process. The devices demonstrate a higher thermal processing budget than similar Si+-implanted devices and achieve higher responsivity after annealing up to 350 °C.