Additive Lithography - Organic Monolayer Patterning Coupled with an Area-Selective Deposition

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The combination of area-selective deposition (ASD) with a patternable organic monolayer provides a versatile additive lithography platform, enabling the generation of a variety of nanoscale feature geometries. Stearate hydroxamic acid self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were patterned with extreme ultraviolet (λ = 13.5 nm) or electron beam irradiation and developed with ASD to achieve line space patterns as small as 50 nm. Density functional theory was employed to aid in the synthesis of hydroxamic acid derivatives with optimized packing density to enhance the imaging contrast and improve dose sensitivity. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy reveal that the imaging mechanism is based on improved deposition inhibition provided by the cross-linking of the SAM to produce a more effective barrier during a subsequent deposition step. With patterned substrates composed of coplanar copper lines and silicon spacers, hydroxamic acids selectively formed monolayers on the metal portions and could undergo a pattern-wise exposure followed by ASD in the first combination of a patternable monolayer with ASD. This material system presents an additional capability compared to traditional ASD approaches that generally reflect a starting patterned surface. Furthermore, this bottoms-up additive approach to lithography may be a viable alternative to subtractive nanoscale feature