WOLTE 2022
Conference paper

A system design approach toward integrated cryogenic quantum control systems

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In this paper, we provide a system level perspective on the design of control electronics for large scale quantum systems. Quantum computing systems with high-fidelity control and readout, coherent coupling, calibrated gates, and reconfigurable circuits with low error rates are expected to have superior quantum volumes. Cryogenic CMOS plays a crucial role in the realization of scalable quantum computers, by minimizing the feature size, lowering the cost, power consumption, and implementing low latency error correction. Our approach toward achieving scalable feed-back based control systems includes the design of memory based arbitrary waveform generators (AWG's), wide band radio frequency analog to digital converters, integrated amplifier chain, and state discriminators that can be synchronized with gate sequences. Digitally assisted designs, when implemented in an advanced CMOS node such as 7 nm can reap the benefits of low power due to scaling. A qubit readout chain demands several amplification stages before the digitizer. We propose the co-integration of our in-house developed InP HEMT LNAs with CMOS LNA stages to achieve the required gain at the digitizer input with minimal area. Our approach using high impedance matching between the HEMT LNA and the cryogenic CMOS receiver can relax the design constraints of an inverter-based CMOS LNA, paving the way toward a fully integrated qubit readout chain. The qubit state discriminator consists of a digital signal processor that computes the qubit state from the digitizer output and a pre-determined threshold. The proposed system realizes feedback-based optimal control for error mitigation and reduction of the required data rate through the serial interface to room temperature electronics.