# Upper bounds on entangling rates of bipartite Hamiltonians

## Abstract

We discuss upper bounds on the rate at which unitary evolution governed by a nonlocal Hamiltonian can generate entanglement in a bipartite system. Given a bipartite Hamiltonian H coupling two finite dimensional particles A and B, the entangling rate is shown to be upper bounded by clog (d) H, where d is the smallest dimension of the interacting particles, H is the operator norm of H, and c is a constant close to 1. Under certain restrictions on the initial state we prove an analogous upper bound for the ancilla-assisted entangling rate with a constant c that does not depend upon dimensions of local ancillas. The restriction is that the initial state has at most two distinct Schmidt coefficients (each coefficient may have arbitrarily large multiplicity). Our proof is based on analysis of a mixing rate-a functional measuring how fast entropy can be produced if one mixes a time-independent state with a state evolving unitarily. © 2007 The American Physical Society.