An estimated 425 million people globally have diabetes, accounting for 12% of the world's health expenditures, and yet 1 in 2 persons remain undiagnosed and untreated. Applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive computing offer promise in diabetes care. The purpose of this article is to better understand what AI advances may be relevant today to persons with diabetes (PWDs), their clinicians, family, and caregivers. The authors conducted a predefined, online PubMed search of publicly available sources of information from 2009 onward using the search terms "diabetes" and "artificial intelligence." The study included clinically-relevant, high-impact articles, and excluded articles whose purpose was technical in nature. A total of 450 published diabetes and AI articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies represent a diverse and complex set of innovative approaches that aim to transform diabetes care in 4 main areas: automated retinal screening, clinical decision support, predictive population risk stratification, and patient self-management tools. Many of these new AI-powered retinal imaging systems, predictive modeling programs, glucose sensors, insulin pumps, smartphone applications, and other decision-support aids are on the market today with more on the way. AI applications have the potential to transform diabetes care and help millions of PWDs to achieve better blood glucose control, reduce hypoglycemic episodes, and reduce diabetes comorbidities and complications. AI applications offer greater accuracy, efficiency, ease of use, and satisfaction for PWDs, their clinicians, family, and caregivers.