Applied Physics Letters

Thermally evaporated Cu2 ZnSnS4 solar cells

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High efficiency Cu2 ZnSnS4 solar cells have been fabricated on glass substrates by thermal evaporation of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S. Solar cells with up to 6.8% efficiency were obtained with absorber layer thicknesses less than 1 μm and annealing times in the minutes. Detailed electrical analysis of the devices indicate that the performance of the devices is limited by high series resistance, a "double diode" behavior of the current voltage characteristics, and an open circuit voltage that is limited by a carrier recombination process with an activation energy below the band gap of the material. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.