Journal of Applied Physics

Spin-polarized photoemission study of epitaxial Gd(0001) films on W(110)

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Surface magnetic properties of epitaxial Gd(0001) films grown on W(110) were studied with spin-polarized resonant 4f photoemission. Films grown at room temperature and subsequently annealed to 550 °C show 66% polarization at 150 K, whereas films grown at 400 °C show only 46% polarization. Both types of films exhibit surface enhanced magnetic order, with the highest observed surface critical temperature exceeding the bulk value by as much as 60 K. For the first time, a rich variety of novel surface magnetic phenomena, i.e., sizeable perpendicular polarization component and unusual temperature hysteresis in the spin polarization, are observed, demonstrating that surface magnetic reconstruction is present in Gd(0001) films.