Scanning Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy provides valuable information about magnetic properties of materials and devices. The magnetic flux response of the SQUID is often linearized with a flux-locked feedback loop, which limits the response time to microseconds or longer. In this work, we present the design, fabrication, and characterization of a novel scanning SQUID sampler with a 40-ps time resolution and linearized response to periodically triggered signals. Other design features include a micron-scale pickup loop for the detection of local magnetic flux, a field coil to apply a local magnetic field to the sample, and a modulation coil to operate the SQUID sampler in a flux-locked loop to linearize the flux response. The entire sampler device is fabricated on a 2 mm × 2 mm chip and can be scanned over macroscopic planar samples. The flux noise at 4.2 K with 100 kHz repetition rate and 1 s of averaging is of order 1 mΦ0. This SQUID sampler will be useful for imaging dynamics in magnetic and superconducting materials and devices.