Yearbook of Medical Informatics

Role of Artificial Intelligence within the Telehealth Domain

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OBJECTIVES: This paper provides a discussion about the potential scope of applicability of Artificial Intelligence methods within the telehealth domain. These methods are focussed on clinical needs and provide some insight to current directions, based on reports of recent advances. METHODS: Examples of telehealth innovations involving Artificial Intelligence to support or supplement remote health care delivery were identified from recent literature by the authors, on the basis of expert knowledge. Observations from the examples were synthesized to yield an overview of contemporary directions for the perceived role of Artificial Intelligence in telehealth. RESULTS: Two major focus areas for related contemporary directions were established. These were first, quality improvement for existing clinical practice and service delivery, and second, the development and support of new models of care. Case studies from each focus area have been chosen for illustration purposes. CONCLUSION: Examples of the role of Artificial Intelligence in delivery of health care remotely include use of tele-assessment, tele-diagnosis, tele-interactions, and tele-monitoring. Further developments of underlying algorithms and validation of methods will be required for wider adoption. Certain key social and ethical considerations also need consideration more generally in the health system, as Artificial-Intelligence-enabled-telehealth becomes more commonplace.