Escherichia coli chemotactic motion in spatiotemporally varying environments is studied by using a computational model based on a coarse-grained description of the intracellular signaling pathway dynamics. We find that the cell's chemotaxis drift velocity vd is a constant in an exponential attractant concentration gradient [L]∞exp(Gx). vd depends linearly on the exponential gradient G before it saturates when G is larger than a critical value GC. We find that GC is determined by the intracellular adaptation rate kR with a simple scaling law: GC∞k1/2R. The linear dependence of vd on G = d(ln[L])/dx directly demonstrates E. coli's ability in sensing the derivative of the logarithmic attractant concentration. The existence of the limiting gradient GC and its scaling with kR are explained by the underlying intracellular adaptation dynamics and the flagellar motor response characteristics. For individual cells, we find that the overall average run length in an exponential gradient is longer than that in a homogeneous environment, which is caused by the constant kinase activity shift (decrease). The forward runs (up the gradient) are longer than the backward runs, as expected; and depending on the exact gradient, the (shorter) backward runs can be comparable to runs in a spatially homogeneous environment, consistent with previous experiments. In (spatial) ligand gradients that also vary in time, the chemotaxis motion is damped as the frequency ω of the time-varying spatial gradient becomes faster than a critical value ωc, which is controlled by the cell's chemotaxis adaptation rate kR. Finally, our model, with no adjustable parameters, agrees quantitatively with the classical capillary assay experiments where the attractant concentration changes both in space and time. Our model can thus be used to study E. coli chemotaxis behavior in arbitrary spatiotemporally varying environments. Further experiments are suggested to test some of the model predictions. © 2010 Jiang et al.