# Phase transitions and static spin correlations in ising models with free surfaces

## Abstract

Phase transitions in Ising models with tree surfaces are studied from various points of view, including a phenomenological Landau theory, high-temperature series expansions, and a scaling theory for thermodynamic quantities and correlation functions. In the presence of a surface a number of new critical exponents must be defined. These arise because of the existence of "surface" terms in the thermodynamic functions, and because of the anisotropy of space and lack of translational symmetry introduced by the surface. The need for these new critical exponents already appears in the phenomenological theory, which is discussed in detail and related to the microscopic mean-field approximation. The essential new parameter appearing in this theory is an extrapolation length λ which enters the boundary condition on the magnetization at the surface. For magnetic systems this length is of the order of the interaction range, in contrast to superconductors, where it is usually much larger. In order to go beyond the mean-field theory, high-temperature series expansions are carried out for the Ising half-space, to tenth order in two dimensions and to eighth order in three dimensions. A scaling theory is developed both for thermodynamic functions and for spin correlations near the surface, and relations are found among the exponents of the half-space. Both the scaling theory and the numerical calculations are compared with the exact solution of the Ising half-plane (two dimensions) by McCoy and Wu, and agreement is found wherever the theory is applicable. In analogy to the bulk situation, the scaling theory is found to agree with mean-field theory in four dimensions. The prediction of the present work which is most easily accessible to experiment is the temperature dependence of the magnetization at the surface, with critical exponent estimated to be β1=23. The mean-field result, β1=1, seems to agree more closely with presently available experiment, and more work is needed to clarify the situation. © 1972 The American Physical Society.