Miniaturized biosensors that can measure ions and biomolecules in real time with high sensitivity and resolution have the potential to bring about transformative advances in healthcare. This talk focuses on electronic biosensing devices for continuous monitoring and early diagnostic applications. Innovative bipolar junction transistor (BJT) based biosensors with significantly enhanced sensing characteristics and inherently simpler calibration requirements are discussed. These sensors are shown to be well suited for mobile applications such as wearables, where continuous monitoring is required with minimal human intervention. Application examples of BJT sensors are also presented. Additionally, results for CMOS compatible nanowire field effect transistor (FET) biosensors for early disease diagnosis are discussed; this research has been successfully licensed for commercialization. Challenges associated with nanofabrication, biomolecule detection and strategies for ensuring successful technology transfer are discussed. Lastly, these electronic biosensors are shown to address unmet needs in other important areas such as sustainable agriculture and environmental monitoring. The presentation will conclude with open questions and challenges related to biosensor research and development.