Microelectronic Engineering

In situ X-ray diffraction study of thin film Ir/Si solid state reactions

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The solid state reaction between a thin (30 nm) Ir film and different Si substrates (p-type Si(1 0 0), n- and p-type Si(1 1 1), silicon on insulator (SOI) and polycrystalline Si) was studied using a combination of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), in situ sheet resistance and laser light scattering measurements. No significant influence of either the dopants or the substrate orientation was detected as a phase formation sequence of IrSi, Ir3 Si4, Ir3 Si5 and IrSi3 was found for all samples. The presence of a thin (<4 nm) amorphous IrSi film at room temperature and its subsequent crystallization could be deduced from the appearance of a broad semi-amorphous diffraction peak in the XRD spectrum around 400 °C. The results were verified using ex situ Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and 4-point probe measurements on quenched samples. The activation energy of the crystallization process and the silicide growth was determined using a Kissinger analysis on ramp anneals with different ramp rates. In addition, the influence of up to 25 volumetric % (20.5 atomic %) of Ir to the silicide formation in the Ni/Si system was studied on SOI and polycrystalline Si substrates. In the presence of Ir, the temperature range over which the low resistivity NiSi exists, is reduced both through an increase in formation temperature and an earlier consumption by the formation of NiSi2. After the heat treatment, a continuous distribution of Ir throughout the NiSi2 phase was detected using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. A low sheet resistance of < 20 Ω / □ was maintained on both substrates up to 900 °C. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.