Fluorescence quenching is a powerful technique used to obtain information about the dynamic changes of proteins in complex macromolecular systems. In this work, graphene is shown to be a very efficient quencher of fluorescence molecules where the quenching effect was one order of magnitude higher than that of gold. The fluorescence intensity was distance-dependent where increasing the distance between the fluorescence molecule and the graphene surface from 4 to 7 nm increased the fluorescence intensity by a factor of 7.5. This type of distance dependence suggests a nonradiative nature in the energy transfer between the graphene and the fluorophore due to the excitation of an exciton. © 2012 American Chemical Society.