Nature Communications

Graphene-enabled and directed nanomaterial placement from solution for large-scale device integration

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Directed placement of solution-based nanomaterials at predefined locations with nanoscale precision limits bottom-up integration in semiconductor process technology. We report a method for electric-field-assisted placement of nanomaterials from solution by means of large-scale graphene layers featuring nanoscale deposition sites. The structured graphene layers are prepared via either transfer or synthesis on standard substrates, and then are removed once nanomaterial deposition is completed, yielding material assemblies with nanoscale resolution that cover surface areas >1 mm2. In order to demonstrate the broad applicability, we have assembled representative zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, and two-dimensional semiconductors at predefined substrate locations and integrated them into nanoelectronic devices. Ultimately, this method opens a route to bottom-up integration of nanomaterials for industry-scale applications.