IEEE Trans Electromagn Compat

Frequency-dependent losses on high-performance interconnections

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This paper compares the major classes of chip-to-chip and on-chips interconnections used in high-performance computers and communication systems and reviews their electrical characteristics. Measurement results of dielectric loss are shown and the attenuation is compared for printed-circuit-board, glass-ceramic, thin-film, and on-chip wiring. Simulation results are shown with representative driver and receiver circuits, guide-lines are given for when losses are significant, and predictions are made for the sustainable bandwidths on useful wiring lengths.