International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization 2007
Conference paper

Electromigration reliability of advanced interconnects

View publication


Electromigration behavior in Cu damascene wires was studied for various metal line widths, thicknesses and grain sizes where the grain size was modulated by Cu linewidth and thickness, and by adjusting the wafer annealing process step after Cu electroplating and before Cu chemical mechanical polishing. Significantly different results were found between 0.2 μm and 65 nm CMOS node technologies. A larger variation of Cu grain size between the samples was achieved on 65 nm node which was due to the finer line width and thinner metal thickness. The Cu lifetime and mass flow in samples with bamboo, near bamboo, bamboo-polycrystalline mixture, and polycrystalline grain structures were measured. These factors allow one to accurately resolve the relative contribution between grain boundary and interface diffusions in the Cu nanowires. The electromigration mass flow estimated from the lifetime on the test line on a W via and physically stable liner was found to be linearly proportional to current density. The effects of Cu(Ti) alloy seeds and Cu surface pre-clean techniques before the dielectric cap depositions on Cu electromigration were also observed. A significantly improved Cu lifetime, at the expense of the Cu conductivity, was found. The electromigration activation energies for Cu in Cu(Ti) alloy, along Cu/amorphous a-SiC xN yH z interface and in Cu grain boundaries were found to be 1.3, 0.95 and 0.79+0.05eV, respectively. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.