Don't trust the cloud, verify: Integrity and consistency for cloud object stores
Cloud services have turned remote computation into a commodity and enable convenient online collaboration. However, they require that clients fully trust the service provider in terms of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Towards reducing this dependency, this paper introduces a protocol for verification of integrity and consistency for cloud object storage (VICOS), which enables a group of mutually trusting clients to detect data-integrity and consistency violations for cloud storage. It aims at services where multiple clients cooperate on data stored remotely on a potentially misbehaving service. VICOS enforces the consistency notion of fork-linearizability, supports wait-free client semantics for most operations, and reduces the computation and communication overhead compared to previous protocols. VICOS is based in a generic way on any authenticated data structure. A prototype of VICOS that works with the keyvalue store interface of commodity cloud storage has been implemented, and an evaluation demonstrates its advantage compared to existing systems.