In studying integrated dual damascene hardware at 10 nm node dimensions, we identified the mechanism for Co liner enhancement of Cu gap-fill to be a wetting improvement of the PVD Cu seed, rather than a local nucleation enhancement for Cu plating. We then show that Co "divot" (top-comer slit void defect) formation can be suppressed by a new wet chemistry, in turn eliminating divot-induced EM degradation. Further, we confirm a relative decrease in Cu-alloy seed proportional resistivity impact compared to scattering at scaled dimensions, and finally we address the incompatibility between the commonly-used carbonyl-based CVD-Co process with Cu-alloy seed EM performance This problem is due to oxidation of Ta(N) barriers at the TaN/CVD-Co interface by carbonyl-based CVD processes, which then consumes alloy atoms before they can segregate at the Cu/cap interface. We show that O-free CVD-Co may solve this problem. The above solutions may then enable CVD-Co/Cu-alloy seed integration in advanced nodes. © 2013 IEEE.