Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B

Computational lithography: Exhausting the resolution limits of 193-nm projection lithography systems

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In the recent past, scaling of semiconductor fabrication systems has been dominated by wavelength and numerical aperture modifications. This is now no longer the case for 193-nm immersion projection lithography (193i) systems as there are no technical paths for continued benefit from the in these areas. Instead, a range of techniques including patterning processes and system optimization are being used to push the limits of the system. This paper will review the elements that are now driving scaling for a system of fixed wavelength and numerical aperture. © 2011 American Vacuum Society.