npj Digital Medicine

Artificial intelligence and machine learning in clinical development: a translational perspective

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Future of clinical development is on the verge of a major transformation due to convergence of large new digital data sources, computing power to identify clinically meaningful patterns in the data using efficient artificial intelligence and machine-learning algorithms, and regulators embracing this change through new collaborations. This perspective summarizes insights, recent developments, and recommendations for infusing actionable computational evidence into clinical development and health care from academy, biotechnology industry, nonprofit foundations, regulators, and technology corporations. Analysis and learning from publically available biomedical and clinical trial data sets, real-world evidence from sensors, and health records by machine-learning architectures are discussed. Strategies for modernizing the clinical development process by integration of AI- and ML-based digital methods and secure computing technologies through recently announced regulatory pathways at the United States Food and Drug Administration are outlined. We conclude by discussing applications and impact of digital algorithmic evidence to improve medical care for patients.