# Analysis of strong induct IVE coupling on squid systems

## Abstract

A technique for the analysis of complex superconducting circuits containing one or more current biased inductively coupled Josephson junction interferometers is described. The equations of motion for the system are shown to separate into a set of non-linear junction equations relating the voltage drops across the junctions to the currents passing through the junctions, and a set of linear equations expressing the quantization of the fluxoid around the superconducting loops and the corresponding linear circuit equations for the normal loops. In many cases, the linear equations can be integrated, resulting in an effective elimination of the normal circuit loops from the problem. The circuit is thus reduced to that of an equivalent set of coupled SQUIDs whose device parameters are a function of the original circuit parameters and the inductive coupling strengths. The dc SQUID tuned linear amplifier is analyzed to display the method. As a result of this analysis, the optimal noise temperature of a tuned SQUID amplifier is derived as a function of the current and voltage noise spectral densities, Sv and Sj and forward transfer function, V ¢. The results obtained demonstrate that the behavior of the SQUID cannot be isolated from that of the rest of the circuit in the manner assumed in previous analyses. The existence of a quantum noise limit on the noise temperature of any phase preserving linear amplifier is used to infer that the noise figures must’ satisfy the constraint [(Sv/2LVϕ2) (LSj/2) -Svj2/4Vϕ2] 1/2> Ä§ The behavior of several simple circuits containing a pair of inductively coupled current biased interferometers is discussed to display the extension. of the method to circuits. containing more than one interferometer. © 1983 IEEE